Two of the most commonly prescribed minimally invasive surgical (MIS) procedures to correct anatomical problems associated with infertility and pregnancy loss are laparoscopy and hysteroscopy
Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are two of the most common procedures to either diagnose a woman’s infertility or correct problems that cause infertility and miscarriage.
Laparoscopy, also known as minimally invasive surgery, is direct visualization of the peritoneal cavity, ovaries, outside of the tubes and uterus by using a laparoscope. Laparoscopy often requires only a few 0.5 cm incisions through the abdominal wall. The surgeon inserts a laparoscope into the abdomen through these small incisions to view and make surgical corrections to the pelvic structures involved. The laparoscope is an instrument somewhat like a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system, which brings light into the abdomen. It is about as big around as a fountain pen and twice as long.
An instrument to move the uterus during surgery will be placed in the vagina. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is put into the abdomen through a special needle that is inserted just below the navel. This gas helps to separate the organs inside the abdominal cavity, making it easier for the physician to see the reproductive organs during laparoscopy. The gas is removed at the end of the procedure.
Laparoscopy is a less-invasive procedure than open abdominal surgery and allows for a quicker recovery with a lower risk of adhesion (scar tissue) formation. Most patients go home the same day as the procedure and return to work 3-4 days later.
During an operative hysteroscopy, a small hysteroscope is inserted through the cervix and advanced into the uterine cavity with the patient asleep under general anesthesia. Like a laparoscope, the hysteroscope is an instrument somewhat like a miniature telescope with a fiber optic system, which brings light into the uterus. This procedure allows for direct views of the uterine cavity and permits the physician to surgically correct the abnormality.
Patients go home the same day as the procedure and can often return to work the next day.